Rod-shaped, drug-resistant Shigella bacteria

Shigellosis is an infectious disease caused by a group of bacteria called Shigella. Most who are infected with Shigella develop diarhea, fever, and stomach cramps starting a day or two after they are exposed to the bacteria. Shigellosis usually resolves in 5 to 7 days. Some people who are infected may have no symptoms at all, but may still pass the Shigella bacteria to others. The spread ofShigella can be stopped by frequent and careful handwashing with soap and taking other hygiene measures.

 

Left: Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts stained with Ziehl-Neelson modified acid-fast. | Right: Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts stained with safranin.

Cryptosporidium is a microscopic parasite that causes the diarrheal disease cryptosporidiosis. Both the parasite and the disease are commonly known as "Crypto."

There are many species of Cryptosporidium that infect humans and animals. The parasite is protected by an outer shell that allows it to survive outside the body for long periods of time and makes it very tolerant to chlorine disinfection.

While this parasite can be spread in several different ways, water (drinking water and recreational water) is the most common method of transmission. Cryptosporidium is one of the most frequent causes of waterborne disease among humans in the United States.

Image: Left: Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts stained with Ziehl-Neelson modified acid-fast. Right:Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts stained with safranin. Credit: DPDx

Source: http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/crypto/index.html 

 

 

Illness caused by germs and chemicals found in the water we swim in.

Contrary to popular belief, chlorine does not kill all germs instantly. There are germs today that are very tolerant to chlorine and were not known to cause human disease until recently. Once these germs get in the pool, it can take anywhere from minutes to days for chlorine to kill them. Swallowing just a little water that contains these germs can make you sick.

Recreational water illnesses (RWIs) are caused by germs spread by swallowing, breathing in mists or aerosols of, or having contact with contaminated water in swimming pools, hot tubs, water parks, water play areas, interactive fountains, lakes, rivers, or oceans. RWIs can also be caused by chemicals in the water or chemicals that evaporate from the water and cause indoor air quality problems.

RWIs include a wide variety of infections, such as gastrointestinal, skin, ear, respiratory, eye, neurologic, and wound infections. The most commonly reported RWI is diarhea. Diarheal illnesses are caused by germs such as Crypto (short for Cryptosporidium), GiardiaShigellanorovirus and E. coli O157:H7. With RWI outbreaks on the rise, swimmers need to take an active role in helping to protect themselves and prevent the spread of germs. It is important for swimmers to learn the basic facts about RWIs so they can keep themselves and their family healthy every time they swim.

In the past two decades, there has been a substantial increase in the number of RWI outbreaks associated with swimming. Crypto, which can stay alive for days even in well-maintained pools, has become the leading cause of swimming pool-related outbreaks of diarheal illness. From 2004 to 2008, reported Crypto cases increased over 200% (from 3,411 cases in 2004 to 10,500 cases in 2008) 1.

Although Crypto is tolerant to chlorine, most germs are not. Keeping chlorine at recommended levels is essential to maintain a healthy pool. However, a 2010 study found that 1 in 8 public pool inspections resulted in pools being closed immediately due to serious code violations such as improper chlorine levels 2.

References

  1. CDC. Cryptosporidiosis surveillance — United States, 2009–2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012;61(SS05):1-12.
  2. CDC. Violations identified from routine swimming pool inspections — Selected states and counties, United States, 2008. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59(SS19):582-587.

Source: http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/swimming/rwi/

 

 

Left: G. intestinalis trophozoites in Kohn stain. Center: G. intestinalis cyst stained with trichrome. Right: G. intestinalis in in vitro culture, from a quality control slide.

Giardia is a microscopic parasite that causes the diarrheal illness known as giardiasis. Giardia (also known as Giardia intestinalisGiardia lamblia, or Giardia duodenalis) is found on surfaces or in soil, food, or water that has been contaminated with feces (poop) from infected humans or animals.

Giardia is protected by an outer shell that allows it to survive outside the body for long periods of time and makes it tolerant to chlorine disinfection. While the parasite can be spread in different ways, water (drinking water and recreational water) is the most common method of transmission.

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